Mulyavardhan is focused on development of democratic and Constitutional values, which is a primary goal of the curriculum. The Mulyavardhan pedagogy and approach is geared to ensure that children do not simply gain knowledge about the values, but also develop the related attitudes and competencies in a regular, focused and systematic way. In that respect Mulyavardhan could be different from efforts schools are already taking to help children learn values. Mulyavardhan would supplement or strengthen the efforts schools may be already taking to help children learn desirable values.
The long-term goal of Mulyavardhan is that children become good citizens of democracy. In the short or immediate term, children and schools will benefit in the following ways:
- Children show more responsible and caring/helping behaviour.
- Children learn to think on their own, about their own behaviour and the behaviour of others.
- Children’s language and social skills improve.
- Relations between children and teachers improve.
- Children’s liking for school increases.
With its learner-centric and whole-school approach, Mulyavardhan can change the teaching-learning processes and the image of schools following traditional teaching methods.
Only 70-100 minutes a week have to be allotted to Mulyavardhan classroom activities. This is less than 5% of total school time. Even within this time children will be doing activities which are closely linked to curriculum outcomes. Hence the question of “burden” does not arise. The question also does not arise in case of curriculums that prescribe weekly allocation of school time for value education or teaching and learning of life-skills
The alignment is at two levels. At the primary level, Mulyavardhan’s goal is a re-statement of the primary aim of school education as stated in the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 and curriculums based on it, such as the Maharashtra state curriculum. At the secondary level, Mulyavardhan activities are directly linked to learning outcomes prescribed in curriculums for languages and social studies. For example, several Mulyavardhan activities are directly linked to a major language-related learning outcome in primary school, namely “Children express themselves clearly and confidently”.
Yes and no. Our Mulyavardhan pilot-programme experience of six years in Beed district of Maharashtra shows that just the classroom activities can lead to children showing positive, value-based behavior. Studies of the pilot-programme done by international experts have established this observation.
However, it is obvious that the entire school environment should also support the learning of values by children. Hence, Mulyavardhan uses a whole-school approach, and the classroom activities are one component of the whole programme.
The Mulyavardhan classroom activities are based on a programme document, which explains the concept, the learning outcomes, the pedagogy, etc. This programme document has been reviewed and approved by educational authorities like NCERT and MSCERT. The activities themselves have been reviewed by MSCERT, with the help of teachers, education officials and education experts.
As prescribed in the RTE Act, SMF recommends continuous and comprehensive evaluation to assess Mulyavardhan outcomes. In the early grades of primary school, we recommend teacher observation of student behaviour as the main assessment tool. For higher grades, we recommend teacher observation along with student self-assessment and peer assessment. Guidelines and tools for these purposes are provided along with Mulyavardhan education materials for teachers. For evaluation of outcomes across a large number of schools, SMF suggests third-party assessment, with baseline and endline studies.
programme’s approach and values. SMF offers support in the following ways:
- We provide a range of educational materials required to implement the programme, including soft copies of activity-books and teacher guides.
- We proSMF is willing to offer Mulyavardhan to any school or school-body that accepts the vide orientation about Mulyavardhan to decision-makers and supervisory officials.
- We conduct capacity-building workshops for identified teachers who will work later as Mulyavardhan teacher-trainers in the school/school-body. We are working on supply of technology-based support for teachers.
- According to the terms of agreement with the school-body, we provide implementation support, facilitate external assessment of outcomes, and document change in schools and children.
The activities are designed in such a way that in most classes, the full activity can be completed in around 30 minutes. Some activities may require more time (periods).
Similar to the regular subject class, class strength is not a limitation for conducting activities. However, if there are a large number of students in the class, the teacher may not be able to observe all students/groups while they are doing the activity, or some students may not get a chance to participate in the activity fully.
Hence, if the number of students is large, then for some activities the teacher can divide the class into two blocks of 20-30 students each. The teacher can then conduct the activity for one block of students, while the other block is given some other task related to subjects like languages and math. After the first block of students has completed the Mulyavardhan activity, the teacher can ask the second block of students to do it.
If an activity requires students to work in groups, then one should ideally have at least two groups (or eight students) in the class. If these many students are not there in the class, the teacher can combine two classes and follow the practices of multi-grade teaching (see below).
It is well established by research that multi-grade classes are very good for teaching and learning, as older and younger children can learn from each other. Of course, there should not be a wide difference in the age of students. (That is, children of Std I should be with children of Std II, and not children of Std IV). For Mulyavardhan classroom activities, groups or pairs can be formed in such a way that children of different ages work together.
If the number of students in a multi-grade class is large, see question 2 above.
This topic is covered in our capacity-building workshops. Briefly, the points to consider are as follows:
Children may not be able to do an activity because the teacher has not given clear instructions. It is hence important to give instructions clearly and confirm that students have understood them. If many children appear to not have understood instructions, the instructions should be repeated, preferably in simpler language.
Children may not be able to do an activity because they are not familiar with some of the terms or concepts in the activity. In this case, the teacher should modify/ contextualise the activity appropriately, keeping the outcome of the activity in mind.
In some cases, some children or groups of children may be able to the activity, while others are not able to do it. In this case, the teacher should encourage children to learn from each other.
The teacher can do one of the following:
Think of some additional activity, which is aligned to the activity that has just been completed. For example, the teacher can narrate a story or a real-life incident and ask questions about it.
Conduct the next activity given in the teacher activity-book, if there is sufficient time left to do the activity from start to end.
Conduct some of the cooperative games given at the end of the teacher activity-book.
Tell children to do what they like—without disturbing the rest of the school.
Take up the topic/lesson of the next period according to the time-table.